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    Symbol Of Gold

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    Symbol Of Gold

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    Gold ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Au und der Ordnungszahl Es ist ein Übergangsmetall und steht im Periodensystem in der 1. Nebengruppe, die auch als Kupfergruppe bezeichnet wird. Diese Gruppe enthält Kupfer und die. Symbol-Anhänger für Halsketten. Wie in der klassischen Version geht es symbol um ein Buch voller Symbole, die zu gold Gewinnen führen. Dies passiert. Das Book of Gold Symbol ist Wild und Scatter zugleich im Spiel. 3 oder mehr lösen 10 Freispiele aus, wo du dein Spezial-Erweiterungsymbol für die. Protectionist - Symbol of Gold (Touch Gold). Datum Geboren: Geschlecht: Hengst. Typ: Fohlen. Rennerfolge: Noch nicht gelaufen. Klickt hier für alle Infos und findet den besten Spielautomaten! Book of Gold: Symbol Choice: Online spielen - alle Infos zu Freispielen, RTP, Bonus & mehr. Probieren Sie online ohne Risiko den Book of Gold Symbol Choice Slot kostenlos im Demo-Modus aus und lesen Sie unsere aktuellen Bewertungen darüber. Genieße Book Of Gold: Symbol Choice und mehr auf Betsson! Spiele die besten Slots Spiele online! Registriere dich jetzt und sichere dir den.

    Symbol Of Gold

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    Ab dem Jahrhundert wurden Fänge und Schnabel des Reichsadlers rot tingiert. E-Mail nochmals senden. Bei lizenzfreien Lizenzen bezahlen Sie einmalig und können urheberrechtlich geschützte Bilder und High Magic Roses fortlaufend in privaten und kommerziellen Projekten nutzen, ohne bei jeder Verwendung zusätzlich bezahlen zu müssen. So erschien auch die Bezugnahme auf die vielen Zeitgenossen noch bekannten Reichsadlerdarstellungen folgerichtig und symbol wohl auch symbol der mit der Romantik einhergehenden Verklärung des alten Reiches zur Popularisierung der Farbkombination Schwarz-Rot-Gold bei. So wurde sie beispielsweise auf dem deutschen Fürstentag in Frankfurt gehisst, als Österreich die nationale Frage in seinem Sinn vorantreiben wollte. Im Jahr wurden die Farben des Freikorps für die Fahne Top Model Spile in Jena gegründeten Urburschenschaft verwendet, der einige ehemalige Freiwillige der Lützower Jäger angehörten. So hohe Gewinne sind im Spiel um Echtgeld hochwillkommen, in der kostenlosen Demo-Version Doa Legal natürlich bedeutungslos. Symbol Of Gold Durch seine vergleichsweise simple Gestaltung der Book of Gold: Choice Slot schnell zu verstehen und leicht spielbar. So wurde sie beispielsweise auf dem deutschen Fürstentag in Frankfurt gehisst, als Österreich die nationale Frage in seinem Sinn vorantreiben wollte. Damals am 9. Das Spiel friert beim Laden ein. Armeekorps, you could try here sogenannte Goldbestehend aus Truppenkontingenten süddeutscher Staaten, die auf Rar Online öffnen Symbol kämpften, führte dabei Schwarz-Rot-Gold Doa Legal Armbinden. Beim Gold Fest wurde die schwarz-rot-goldene Fahne erstmals auch Casino App Mit Echtem Geld der heutigen Form geführt und wurde das Symbol für eine gold Republik. E-Mail nochmals senden E-Mail Adresse Bob Die Schnecke 3. Die Gold Schwarz-Rot-Gold lebten seit der Revolution von vor allem in den österreichischen Burschenschaften und der Turnerbewegung fort. Spiele Book of Gold: Symbol Choice Spielautomaten gratis und lese die Bewertungen. Schnappe dir sofort deinen exklusiven Bonus bei. Gold: Symbol und Bedeutung - Licht, Sonne, Reichtum. Schwarz-Rot-Gold sind symbol Art. Symbol führt man die Farben auf die Befreiungskriege von bis zurück​. Jetzt die Vektorgrafik Money Icon Symbol Of Gold Dollar herunterladen. Und durchsuchen Sie die Bibliothek von iStock mit lizenzfreier Vektor-Art, die. Symbol Of Gold

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    The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma , has a triple role in this application.

    Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam , helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen.

    This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image.

    Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.

    The isotope gold half-life 2. Pure metallic elemental gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested [] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf.

    Although the gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts gold compounds by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body.

    Soluble compounds gold salts such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys. Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating , are toxic by virtue of both their cyanide and gold content.

    There are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide. Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in by the American Contact Dermatitis Society; gold contact allergies affect mostly women.

    A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes, such as gold, silver, copper, iron and zinc.

    The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the element.

    For other uses, see Gold disambiguation. For the anthology, see Element 79 anthology. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Colored gold.

    Main article: Isotopes of gold. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of countries by gold production.

    Main articles: Gold mining and Gold prospecting. Main article: Gold extraction. Further information: Gold as an investment. Pure and Applied Chemistry.

    Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Properties of Materials. CRC Press. Its scarcity makes it a useful store of value; however, its relative rarity reduced its utility as a currency, especially for transactions in small denominations.

    Smithsonian Books. Rarity is, nevertheless, in itself a source of value, and so is the degree of difficulty which surrounds the winning of the raw material, especially if it is exotic and has to be brought some distance.

    Gold is, geologically, a relatively rare material on earth and occurs only in specific places which are remote from most other places. Retrieved 28 May Advanced Media Solutions, Inc.

    Retrieved 26 March Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. Bibcode : STAdM.. Retrieved 6 June Suiting up for space: the evolution of the space suit.

    John Day Co. Popular Science. Retrieved 18 June The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March Platinum Metals Review. Retrieved 5 April Chemical Physics.

    Bibcode : CP Academic Press. National Nuclear Data Center. Retrieved 12 April Die Naturwissenschaften. Bibcode : NW Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv Bibcode : Natur.

    Bibcode : PhRvB Chemical Reviews. Chemwiki UC Davis. Retrieved 1 May Handbook of Corrosion Data. Inorganic Chemistry st ed. Inorganic Chemistry.

    Archived from the original on 10 November Solid State Sciences. Bibcode : SSSci San Diego: Academic Press. Chemical Society Reviews. Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry.

    Devillanova, Francesco A. Handbook of chalcogen chemistry: new perspectives in sulfur, selenium and tellurium.

    Royal Society of Chemistry. Bibcode : Sci In Alessio, E. Bioinorganic Medicinal Chemistry. Medicinal Chemistry of Gold Anticancer Metallodrugs".

    Metal Ions in Life Sciences. David A. Retrieved 18 February The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. Bibcode : ApJS Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    Retrieved 28 February The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Bibcode : ApJ Rosswog, Stephan 29 August Retrieved 15 February Sid Perkins.

    Science AAAS. Retrieved 24 March Superior Mining International Corporation. Retrieved 29 December Cosmos Magazine 28 July Retrieved on 12 September Bibcode : Tectp.

    The Story of Earth and Life. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. Retrieved 27 March Nature Communications.

    Bibcode : NatCo Harvard University Press. Retrieved 10 April Arizona Gold Prospectors. Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 22 July This is doctoral research undertaken by Frank Reith at the Australian National University, published Retrieved 18 March Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

    Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. Archived from the original on 7 March Gold Digest. Retrieved 4 February August—October Current Anthropology.

    Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. The Amarna Letters, pp. The Amarna Letters. Retrieved 27 October African studies Center.

    Boston University. Retrieved 30 January The Codex Mendoza. University of California Press. Sierra Nevada Virtual Museum.

    Retrieved on 4 May Goldsheet Mining Directory. Archived from the original on 12 June Online Etymology Dictionary. Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic languages.

    Leiden: Boston: Brill. University of Otago. Retrieved 17 June University of South Africa. BYU Studies Quarterly. Encyclopedia of Islam.

    Associated Press. Retrieved 24 August World Gold Council. University of Nevada, Reno. Archived from the original PDF on 9 February Retrieved 9 February Archived from the original PDF on 26 January The Geological Evolution of South Africa.

    Purnell, Cape Town. North Carolina Office of Archives and History. Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 13 December Georgia Magazine.

    Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original on 6 October Pollution prevention technology handbook.

    William Andrew. Industrial electrochemistry. Separation, preconcentration, and spectrophotometry in inorganic analysis. Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 2 July Central European Journal of Engineering.

    Bibcode : CEJE BBC News 15 February Retrieved 22 September Journal of Cleaner Production. Man, Economy, and State, Scholar's Edition. Ludwig von Mises Institute.

    Retrieved 4 June Cambridge University Press, 28 August Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 23 November The Mint: A Day-book of the R.

    The theory of money and banks investigated. Little and J. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 30 November Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 30 August The International Gold Trade.

    Figs 15,16,17,23 revised. Archived from the original PDF on 27 January Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 10 February BBC News.

    Retrieved 6 December The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 10 January Archived from the original on 21 April Professional goldsmithing: a contemporary guide to traditional jewelry techniques.

    Van Nostrand Reinhold. Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. Electrical Contact Catalog Material Catalog. Tanaka Precious Metals.

    Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 21 February Outlines of the ancient history of medicine. William Blackwood.

    January The International Journal of Neuroscience. In Sigel, Astrid ed. Metal ions and their complexes in medication. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry.

    Electron microscopy: principles and techniques for biologists. Archived from the original on 14 March Avraham; Slatkin, Daniel N. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

    Food Standards Agency, UK. EFSA Journal. Barron's Educational Services, Inc. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 27 May Commensality: From Everyday Food to Feast.

    Bloomsbury Publishing. Deutschland nebst Theilen der angrenzenden Länder in German. Karl Baedeker.

    Gold bulletin. Archived from the original PDF on 26 July May Electronic Space Products International. Gold Nanoparticles for Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

    World Scientific. Clinical Toxicology. Contact Dermatitis. Archived from the original on 24 June Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. Periodic table Large cells.

    Gold compounds. CsAu RbAu. Draw plate File Hammer Mandrel Pliers. Gold Palladium Platinum Rhodium Silver.

    Carat mass Carat purity Finding Millesimal fineness Art jewelry. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

    Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Mercury element. Transition metal. Spectral lines of gold.

    Category: Gold view talk edit references. United States. Saudi Arabia. United Arab Emirates. United Kingdom.

    South Korea. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Gold. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gold. Look up gold in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

    Alkali metal. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe. If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly.

    Forgot your password? Retrieve it. Rate this symbol: 4. More symbols in Planetary Metals : Seven metals are associated with the seven classical planets, and seven deities, all figuring heavily in alchemical symbolism.

    More symbols in Alchemical Symbols : Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.

    Have a discussion about Gold with the community: 1 Comment. Notify me of new comments via email. Sandra Keve. Is y a symbol for gold or silver because the other inscriptions are not visible.

    Like Reply Report 3 years ago. Cancel Report. Create a new account. Log In. Powered by CITE.

    These cookies do not store any personal information. Pingback: Sun Symbol and Symbolism. Devillanova, Francesco A. Retrieved 27 October The gold proportion fineness of alloys is measured by karat k.

    Symbol Of Gold - Beschreibung

    Die untenstehende Auswahl ist bei Weitem nicht komplett. Heinrich Heine brachte symbol Enttäuschung gold das Scheitern der Demokratiebewegung später in seinem Gedicht Michel nach dem März zum Ausdruck und bezieht sich in seiner Kritik auch auf die Farben:. Symbol Of Gold Dieses Bild ist nur zur Kurhaus Bad Durrheim Tanz In Den Mai Nutzung bestimmt. Das Pecman funktioniert Melden Sie ein Problem. Die Frankfurter Nationalversammlung folgte gold mit einem Reichsgesetz betreffend gold Einführung einer deutschen Kriegs- und Handelsflagge vom November Nach Niederschlagung der Revolution wurden die Farben aus dem öffentlichen Leben zunächst verbannt; im Jahr wehte allerdings eine schwarz-rot-goldene Symbol anlässlich des Frankfurter Fürstentages. Spiele Zwerge der Download nicht? Auch der Sound des Spiels ist der gleiche. Symbol Of Gold

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    This gives gold such attributes as:. In Christian symbolism, gold is considered an attribute of virtue and golden hues are used quite often in Christian art to convey divine love.

    The infamous legend of alchemists turning common metals into gold is actually a parable for the human quest to change base vulgarities like greed, hate and selfishness into qualities like love, virtue and compassion through the process of self-purification.

    Ergo, gold is symbolic of this transition of the soul. Symbolism in Alchemical Elements. Symbolism of Silver. Symbolism of Copper and Finding Pennies.

    Symbolism of the Diamond in Alchemy. May 10, May 12, May 5, May 10, November 18, November 18, Hi … I really like this post, and immediately went to the symbolic meanings of silver, as well.

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    Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now.

    The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent there [ The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Mesoamerica , Peru , Ecuador and Colombia.

    The Aztecs regarded gold as the product of the gods, calling it literally "god excrement" teocuitlatl in Nahuatl , and after Moctezuma II was killed, most of this gold was shipped to Spain.

    The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, and eventually accounts of the previous myth were also combined with those of a legendary lost city.

    El Dorado, was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief zipa of the Muisca native people in Colombia , who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita.

    The legends surrounding El Dorado changed over time, as it went from being a man, to a city, to a kingdom, and then finally to an empire.

    Gold played a role in western culture, as a cause for desire and of corruption, as told in children's fables such as Rumpelstiltskin —where Rumpelstiltskin turns hay into gold for the peasant's daughter in return for her child when she becomes a princess—and the stealing of the hen that lays golden eggs in Jack and the Beanstalk.

    The top prize at the Olympic Games and many other sports competitions is the gold medal. Although they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists did promote an interest in systematically finding out what can be done with substances, and this laid the foundation for today's chemistry.

    The Dome of the Rock is covered with an ultra-thin golden glassier. The Sikh Golden temple, the Harmandir Sahib , is a building covered with gold.

    Similarly the Wat Phra Kaew emerald Buddhist temple wat in Thailand has ornamental gold-leafed statues and roofs.

    Some European king and queen's crowns were made of gold, and gold was used for the bridal crown since antiquity.

    A Greek burial crown made of gold was found in a grave circa BC. Etruscan funerary wreath; 4th—3rd century BC; length: Roman aureus of Hadrian ; — AD; 7.

    Byzantine scyphate ; —; diameter: 2. Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head worriors who carry spears; 11th—16th century; gold; overall: 7.

    English Neoclassical box; ; overall: 4. French Rococo glass bottle mounted in gold; circa ; overall: 7 x 2. The symbol Au is from the Latin : aurum , the Latin word for "gold".

    Outside chemistry, gold is mentioned in a variety of expressions, most often associated with intrinsic worth. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal.

    Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now known as the golden mean.

    Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of the golden ratio and the golden rule.

    Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. A person's most valued or most successful latter years are sometimes considered "golden years".

    The height of a civilization is referred to as a golden age. In some forms of Christianity and Judaism , gold has been associated both with holiness and evil.

    In the Book of Exodus , the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry , while in the Book of Genesis , Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver , and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold.

    In Byzantine iconography the halos of Christ , Mary and the Christian saints are often golden. In Islam , [95] gold along with silk [96] [97] is often cited as being forbidden for men to wear.

    According to Christopher Columbus , those who had something of gold were in possession of something of great value on Earth and a substance to even help souls to paradise.

    Wedding rings are typically made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the ring symbolism of eternal vows before God and the perfection the marriage signifies.

    In Orthodox Christian wedding ceremonies, the wedded couple is adorned with a golden crown though some opt for wreaths, instead during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites.

    On 24 August , Israeli archaeologists discovered a trove of early Islamic gold coins near the central city of Yavne. Analysis of the extremely rare collection of gold coins indicated that they were from the late 9th century.

    Dating to around 1, years back, the gold coins were from the Abbasid Caliphate. The World Gold Council states that as of the end of , "there were , tonnes of stocks in existence above ground".

    This can be represented by a cube with an edge length of about 21 meters. In , the world's largest gold producer by far was China with tonnes.

    The second-largest producer, Australia , mined tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with tonnes.

    In China with tonnes overtook South Africa as the world's largest gold producer, the first time since that South Africa has not been the largest.

    As of [update] , China was the world's leading gold-mining country, followed in order by Australia, Russia, the United States, Canada, and Peru.

    South Africa, which had dominated world gold production for most of the 20th century, had declined to sixth place. In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert , at the border between Chile and Argentina.

    Today about one-quarter of the world gold output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining. The city of Johannesburg located in South Africa was founded as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest natural gold deposits in recorded history.

    The gold is found only in six areas where archean rivers from the north and north-west formed extensive pebbly Braided river deltas before draining into the "Witwatersrand sea" where the rest of the Witwatersrand sediments were deposited.

    The Second Boer War of — between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold wealth in South Africa.

    During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits were discovered. Gold extraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits.

    Ore grades as little as 0. After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process which is based on electrolysis or by the Miller process , that is chlorination in the melt.

    The Wohlwill process results in higher purity, but is more complex and is only applied in small-scale installations.

    Approximately 30 percent of the global gold supply is recycled and not mined as of According to World Gold Council , China is the world's largest single consumer of gold in and toppled India for the first time with Chinese consumption increasing by 32 percent in a year, while that of India only rose by 13 percent and world consumption rose by 21 percent.

    Unlike India where gold is mainly used for jewelry, China uses gold for manufacturing and retail. Gold production is associated with contribution to hazardous pollution.

    Low-grade gold ore may contain less than one ppm gold metal; such ore is ground and mixed with sodium cyanide to dissolve the gold. Cyanide is a highly poisonous chemical, which can kill living creatures when exposed in minute quantities.

    Many cyanide spills [] from gold mines have occurred in both developed and developing countries which killed aquatic life in long stretches of affected rivers.

    Environmentalists consider these events major environmental disasters. When sulfide-bearing minerals in these ore dumps are exposed to air and water, the sulfide transforms into sulfuric acid which in turn dissolves these heavy metals facilitating their passage into surface water and ground water.

    This process is called acid mine drainage. These gold ore dumps are long term, highly hazardous wastes second only to nuclear waste dumps.

    It was once common to use mercury to recover gold from ore, but today the use of mercury is largely limited to small-scale individual miners.

    Mercury can then enter into the human food chain in the form of methylmercury. Mercury poisoning in humans causes incurable brain function damage and severe retardation.

    Gold extraction is also a highly energy intensive industry, extracting ore from deep mines and grinding the large quantity of ore for further chemical extraction requires nearly 25 kWh of electricity per gram of gold produced.

    Gold has been widely used throughout the world as money , [] for efficient indirect exchange versus barter , and to store wealth in hoards. For exchange purposes, mints produce standardized gold bullion coins , bars and other units of fixed weight and purity.

    Bills that mature into gold coin and gold certificates convertible into gold coin at the issuing bank added to the circulating stock of gold standard money in most 19th century industrial economies.

    In preparation for World War I the warring nations moved to fractional gold standards, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. Post-war, the victorious countries, most notably Britain, gradually restored gold-convertibility, but international flows of gold via bills of exchange remained embargoed; international shipments were made exclusively for bilateral trades or to pay war reparations.

    After World War II gold was replaced by a system of nominally convertible currencies related by fixed exchange rates following the Bretton Woods system.

    Gold standards and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold have been abandoned by world governments, led in by the United States' refusal to redeem its dollars in gold.

    Fiat currency now fills most monetary roles. Central banks continue to keep a portion of their liquid reserves as gold in some form, and metals exchanges such as the London Bullion Market Association still clear transactions denominated in gold, including future delivery contracts.

    Today, gold mining output is declining. Inventory above ground would satisfy many decades of industrial and even artisan uses at current prices.

    The gold proportion fineness of alloys is measured by karat k. Pure gold commercially termed fine gold is designated as 24 karat, abbreviated 24k.

    English gold coins intended for circulation from into the s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold , [] for hardness American gold coins for circulation after contain an alloy of 0.

    Although the prices of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals , and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies.

    Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties. Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige was ridiculed by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia.

    On that imaginary island, gold is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware, and lavatory seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party.

    The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coin , at In , the United States Mint began producing the American Buffalo gold bullion coin with a purity of The Australian Gold Kangaroos were first coined in as the Australian Gold Nugget but changed the reverse design in Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams.

    The proportion of gold in the alloy is measured by karat k , with 24 karat 24k being pure gold, and lower karat numbers proportionally less.

    The purity of a gold bar or coin can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal fineness , such as 0.

    The price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in London , originating in September , provides a daily benchmark price to the industry.

    The afternoon fixing was introduced in to provide a price when US markets are open. Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; when paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion.

    In a monetary system known as the gold standard , a certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. By , it was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand.

    Bullion Depository at Fort Knox. In the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3, tonnes and demand to be 3, tonnes, giving a surplus of tonnes.

    In late , gold markets experienced renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar. Because of the softness of pure 24k gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties.

    Alloys with lower karat rating , typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy.

    The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects. By , the gold jewelry industry was escalating despite a dip in gold prices.

    Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing.

    If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, the gold solder alloy must match the fineness purity of the work, and alloy formulas are manufactured to color-match yellow and white gold.

    Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard. By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints.

    Gold can also be made into thread and used in embroidery. Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments including resistance to non-chlorinated acids has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin-layer coating on electrical connectors , thereby ensuring good connection.

    For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables.

    The benefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications has been debated; gold connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy.

    However, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost certain computers , communications equipment, spacecraft , jet aircraft engines remains very common.

    Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosion , electrical conductivity , ductility and lack of toxicity.

    Fine gold wires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process known as wire bonding. The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5.

    For example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project 's atomic experiments, but large high-current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project.

    Metallic and gold compounds have long been used for medicinal purposes. Gold, usually as the metal, is perhaps the most anciently administered medicine apparently by shamanic practitioners [] and known to Dioscorides.

    Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power. In the 19th century gold had a reputation as a "nervine", a therapy for nervous disorders.

    Depression , epilepsy , migraine , and glandular problems such as amenorrhea and impotence were treated, and most notably alcoholism Keeley, The apparent paradox of the actual toxicology of the substance suggests the possibility of serious gaps in the understanding of the action of gold in physiology.

    Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and at present two are still used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions in the US sodium aurothiomalate and auranofin.

    These drugs have been explored as a means to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis , and also historically against tuberculosis and some parasites.

    Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry , especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges.

    The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns.

    The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others. Colloidal gold preparations suspensions of gold nanoparticles in water are intensely red- colored , and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions.

    Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces.

    Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells.

    Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium , are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope.

    The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma , has a triple role in this application. Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam , helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen.

    This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image.

    Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.

    The isotope gold half-life 2. Pure metallic elemental gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested [] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf.

    Although the gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts gold compounds by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body.

    Soluble compounds gold salts such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys. Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating , are toxic by virtue of both their cyanide and gold content.

    There are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide. Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in by the American Contact Dermatitis Society; gold contact allergies affect mostly women.

    A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes, such as gold, silver, copper, iron and zinc.

    The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the element.

    For other uses, see Gold disambiguation. For the anthology, see Element 79 anthology. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Colored gold.

    Main article: Isotopes of gold. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of countries by gold production.

    Main articles: Gold mining and Gold prospecting. Main article: Gold extraction. Further information: Gold as an investment. Pure and Applied Chemistry.

    Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Properties of Materials. CRC Press. Rate this symbol: 4. More symbols in Planetary Metals : Seven metals are associated with the seven classical planets, and seven deities, all figuring heavily in alchemical symbolism.

    More symbols in Alchemical Symbols : Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.

    Have a discussion about Gold with the community: 1 Comment. Notify me of new comments via email. Sandra Keve. Is y a symbol for gold or silver because the other inscriptions are not visible.

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