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    Wuppertal Tempel

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    However, artists such as Vera Willoughby, continued to be inspired by the landscape. Delphic themes inspired several graphic artists.

    Examples of such works are displayed in the "Sculpture park of the European Cultural Center of Delphi" and in exhibitions taking place at the Archaeological Museum of Delphi.

    Delphi inspired literature as well. In W. The presence of Delphi in Greek literature is very intense. Angelos Sikelianos wrote The Dedication of the Delphic speech , the Delphic Hymn and the tragedy Sibylla , whereas in the context of the Delphic idea and the Delphic festivals he published an essay titled "The Delphic union" The nobelist George Seferis wrote an essay under the title "Delphi", in the book "Dokimes".

    The importance of Delphi for the Greeks is significant. The site has been recorded on the collective memory and have been expressed through tradition.

    Nikolaos Politis , the famous Greek ethnographer, in his Studies on the life and language of the Greek people - part A, offers two examples from Delphi:.

    When Christ was born a priest of Apollo was sacrificing below the monastery of Panayia, on the road of Livadeia, on a site called Logari. Suddenly he abandoned the sacrifice and says to the people: "in this moment was born the son of God, who will be very powerful, like Apollo, but then Apollo will beat him".

    He didn't have time to finish his speech and a thunder came down and burnt him, opening the rock nearby into two. The Mylords are not Christians, because nobody ever saw them cross themselves.

    They originate from the old pagan inhabitants of Delphi who kept their property in castle called Adelphi, named after the two brother princes who built it.

    When Christ and his mother came to the site, and all people around converted to Christianity they thought that they should better leave; thus the Mylords left for the West and took all their belongings with them.

    The Mylords come here now and worship these stones. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archaeological site and town in Greece.

    The Athena temple complex, including the Delphic Tholos , photographed from Route 48 just above it. The background is the Pleistos River Valley.

    The view is looking upstream. For other uses, see Delphi disambiguation. Main article: Excavations at Delphi.

    Main article: Delphi Archaeological Museum. Main article: Temple of Apollo Delphi. Main article: Stoa of the Athenians.

    Main article: Tholos of Delphi. Main article: Gymnasium at Delphi. Main article: Stadium of Delphi. Main article: Castalian Spring. Main articles: Pythia and Delphic Sibyl.

    This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

    Aristoclea , Delphic priestess of the 6th century BC, said to have been tutor to Pythagoras Delphi Archaeological Museum Ex voto of the Attalids Delphi Franz Weber activist - made an honorary citizen of Delphi in Greek art List of traditional Greek place names Online books , and library resources in your library and in other libraries about Delphi.

    The bottom line on the etymology is that Delphoi is related to delphus, "womb," which is consistent with the omphalos stone there being considered the "navel" of the universe.

    The delphis, or "dolphin" connection, is an accidental result of the dolpins being named from their uterus-like appearance.

    The full etymology is to be found in Frisk. Frisk labels them as secondary developments, including the apparent Doric original a in Dalphoi.

    It could well be Phocian, but was not originally Doric. Without the extension there is no relation between Delphoi and delphus.

    However, Frisk, a major Indo-Europeanist, cites some parallels of -woi- to -oi- in other words. The evidence from mythology adds strength to his hypothesis.

    Without the w, Delphoi is not related to Delphus, but only seems so. The etymology of dolphin is fairly standard. While the gulf may glisten, the apparent glisten of the river is an illusion.

    Either the photograph has been retouched for "postcard" purposes or the limestone bed is shown glistening. The gradient is too steep for any meandering river bed.

    Much of the river courses through underground channels eroded in the Karst topography. Alpides is "that generated during the closure of Neo-Tethys.

    The idea is that within the same orogenic zones the Alpides exist superimposed on the older Cimmerides.

    They are also Alpides by virtue of being in the Alpide system. But, not every Alpide is Alpine. The uniting factor is that the Alpides were thrown up on the shore of Neo-Tethys, which went across what is now Eurasia to the Pacific.

    Moreover, although there was an Alpine orogeny, there was never an Alpide orogeny, the Alpide being a system of orogenies named something else.

    Anything not hinterland is foreland. Suess refers to all of northern Europe as foreland to the Alps. In contrast to the continental drift theorists, he regarded this foreland as moving south to squeeze up the Alps.

    However, a standard feature of oracular response from Apollo is the requirement that the priestess drink from a spring of fresh water, considered sacred.

    It is certain that the spring captured at the chasm was piped to the adyton in the temple. It would be foolish to look for a clear statement of origin from any ancient authority, but one might hope for a plain account of the primitive traditions.

    Actually this is not what we find. The foundation of the oracle is described by three early writers: the author of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo , Aeschylus in the prologue to the Eumenides , and Euripides in a chorus in the Iphigeneia in Tauris.

    All three versions, instead of being simple and traditional, are already selective and tendentious. They disagree with each other basically, but have been superficially combined in the conventional version of late classical times.

    The slaying of the serpent is the act of conquest which secures his possession; not as in the Homeric Hymn , a merely secondary work of improvement on the site.

    Another difference is also noticeable. The Homeric Hymn , as we saw, implied that the method of prophecy used there was similar to that of Dodona : both Aeschylus and Euripides, writing in the fifth century, attribute to primeval times the same methods as used at Delphi in their own day.

    So much is implied by their allusions to tripods and prophetic seats. Another very archaic feature at Delphi also confirms the ancient associations of the place with the Earth goddess.

    This was the Omphalos, an egg-shaped stone which was situated in the innermost sanctuary of the temple in historic times.

    Classical legend asserted that it marked the 'navel' Omphalos or center of the Earth and explained that this spot was determined by Zeus who had released two eagles to fly from opposite sides of the earth and that they had met exactly over this place".

    Themis , who is associated with her in tradition as her daughter and partner or successor, is really another manifestation of the same deity: an identity that Aeschylus himself recognized in another context.

    The worship of these two, as one or distinguished, was displaced by the introduction of Apollo. His origin has been the subject of much learned controversy: it is sufficient for our purpose to take him as the Homeric Hymn represents him — a northern intruder — and his arrival must have occurred in the dark interval between Mycenaean and Hellenic times.

    His conflict with Ge for the possession of the cult site was represented under the legend of his slaying the serpent. Such has been the strength of the tradition that many historians and others have accepted as historical fact the ancient statement that Ge and Themis spoke oracles before it became Apollo's establishment, yet nothing but the myth supports this statement.

    In the earliest account known of the Delphic oracle's beginnings, the story found in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo — , there was no oracle before Apollo came and killed the great she-dragon, Pytho's only inhabitant.

    This was apparently the Delphic myth of the sixth century. That such conceptions attached to Gaia is shown by the records of her cults at Delphi, Athens, and Aegae.

    A recently discovered inscription speaks of a temple of Ge at Delphi. As regards Gaia, we also can accept it.

    It is confirmed by certain features in the latter Delphic divination, and also by the story of the Python. Few cities would undertake such an expedition without consulting the oracle.

    Thus at a moment when the growth of population might have led to congestion within the city, to random emigration, or to conflicts for arable land in the more densely populated regions, Delphi, willy-nilly, faced the problem and conducted a program of organized dispersal.

    Griechisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Band I. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.

    Leiden: Brill. In Peltier, W. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. The Cimmeride orogenic system and the tectonics of Eurasia.

    Special Paper Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. Translation from the Turkish. The Emergence and Evolution of Plate Tectonics.

    University of Illinois. Retrieved 14 November Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 28 November Oxford University Press.

    Orakel am Nabel der Welt, Karlsruhe , pp. University of Chicago. Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 14 April Lives of the Necromancers.

    London, F. III, pp. Fearn , p. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. Bibcode : JAHH Clinical Toxicology.

    National Geographic. Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 27 November I, Athens, Domi Publications, pp. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. In Kazhdan, Alexander ed.

    Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Parke and D. Who's Who in Classical Mythology. American Journal of Archaeology.

    Guida d'Europa in Italian. Milano: Touring Club Italiano. Delphic Sibyl. Wikimedia Commons painting. The Priestess of Delphi painting.

    Consulting the Oracle. The Oracle of Delphi. Delphi — Art, creation of life. Broad, William J. Burkert, Walter Greek Religion. Blackwell, Fearn, David Bacchylides: Politics, Performance, Poetic Tradition.

    Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy , The Delphic oracle, its responses and operations, with a catalogue of responses , Berkeley: University of California Press, Watts, Volume 57, Number 3, Summer , pp.

    Harissis, H. Loyola University. Docket Miller, Stephen G. Ancient Greek Athletics. Parke, Herbert William A history of the Delphic oracle.

    Oxford: B. Plutarch "Lives" Rohde, Erwin , Psyche , Glaisher, Spiller, Henry A. Hale, and Jelle Z. Suess, Eduard Sollas, W J ed.

    The face of the earth Das antlitz der erde. Volume I. Translated by Sollas, Hertha B C. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Volume II. Volume III. Volume IV. Adornato, G Davies, J. Edited by M. Austin, J. Harries, and C. Smith, 1— Davies, John. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Catherine Morgan, 47— Oxford: Oxford Univ.

    Kindt, Julia. Cambridge Classical Studies. Maurizio, Lisa Classical Antiquity. McInerney, Jeremy Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies.

    Morgan, Catherine. Athletes and Oracles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Partida, Elena C. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ.

    Temple, Robert K. Weir, Robert G. Roman Delphi and its Pythian games. Bei uns finden Sie nicht nur genau das Auto was zu Ihnen passt, sondern auch genau den Service den man sich von einem Autohaus erhofft.

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    Information Center Entry into Germany. Leaving Germany. Recent site activity ElternGeld edited by Surendra Jain. There is some cleanup required to make it a correct, complete and comprehensive listing in the form of a table below Temple This is a List of Hindu temples in Germany.

    Giriraja Tempel Leipzig, Stöckelstr. Dharam Kendre Mandir, Burggrafenstr. Sri Muthumariamman Tempel, Empelder Str. Hari Om Mandir, Afgh.

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    The climate is semi-arid. The wetlands then became the Cirra. A similar nomenclature discrepancy exists on the west side of the valley.

    The Skitsa River erodes the Amfissa Valley and then courses in a straight, controlled channel to the gulf at Itea, irrigating the west side of the valley.

    The sources say that it also was formerly named the Plistos, implying that the same Plistos river drained both valleys before different channels were dredged.

    The upper Pleistos follows the base of Mount Cirphis. There is a gradient across the valley, the high side being on the north.

    The low side is called by some "the Pleistos ravine. The source is a ravine under Arachova , a mountain city on Route The upper Pleistos and its valley are protected : no industrial artefacts are to be seen from Delphi for example high voltage power lines and the like are routed so as to be invisible from the area of the sanctuary.

    The stream has been left in its original bed, visible as tracks of bare limestone. A hiking trail on the footprint of the original access road begins on the docks at Cirra, procedes straight up the valley to the upper Pleistos, follows it to the springs, and ascends their stream to the Castalian Spring.

    The hike takes hours. Most visitors take the bus along Route The road at the spring includes a bus park.

    The Pleistos Valley is an outcome of two main standard movements of the crust : the orogeny of Parnassus and the other mountains of Greece, termed the Hellenides, and back-arc extension , a southward-directed movement of the Peloponnesus and Aegean islands.

    Orogeny today is considered the result of plate collision. In the theory of continental drift , the surface of the Earth is divided by mid-ocean ridges and oceanic trenches into plates , or " tectonic plates ," [c] which "drift" over the Earth and collide, as though the dense base rock were an ocean and the lighter plates with continents upon them were adrift.

    The idea of rock drifting over rock impeded the acceptance of continental drift, proposed by Alfred Wegener in , until the data gethered in the International Geophysical Year of confirmed it.

    The apparent physical problem was reconciled through a study of the solid-state properties of rock. It is deformable, and the hotter it gets, the more it deforms.

    Over geologic time the sum of very small deformations under steady pressure gives the impression of a flow.

    The forces deforming the continental plates across the globe are found in the Earth's mantle , which has a liquid inner portion termed the asthenosphere and an outer, solid but deformable portion, the lithosphere.

    The liquid arranges itself by density, heaviest on the bottom, but there is a rising temperature gradient from outer to inner. The hot rock becoming less dense rises in plumes.

    When one reaches the surface it spreads out, forcing the lithosphere apart. New plate is extruded as lava fills the gap.

    On the other side of the plate the now cooler material dives down, or is subducted , beneath the adjacent plate. In the latter one plate is subducted under another, raising its margin into a mountain chain.

    If one can imagine the Eurasian Plate as an anvil, a number of other plates hammer against it from the south.

    The African plate moving northward closes Tethys ocean , the much vaster ancestress of the Mediterranean Sea, and raises the Pyrenees , the Alps , and the mountains of the Balkans.

    The zone extends as far as Java and Sumatra. That part of the zone relevant to Greece, or Hellas, is the alpine orogeny , accounting for the Alps , the Dinaric Alps , and their continuation into Greece.

    The prevalent view of orogeny at the time was the geosynclinal. By the late 19th century movements of the crust during earthquakes had been systematized into tangential and radial with respect to the Earth.

    A wrinkle is a syncline , in which the sides "lean together," joining at the bottom, flanked by anticlines , in which they "lean apart.

    The latter erode into the center, creating a mass that floats upward by isostasy. It is the "hinterland," while the margins are the "forelands.

    By his own admission, Suess, originally an enthusiastic geosynclinist when he began his work, grew increasingly dissatisfied over the fact that the theory did not take vertical movements, or subsidences, into consideration, and dropped the use of the term in later volumes.

    He kept "syncline" provided it meant wrinkles from any source. His conclusion was that they are "long, continuous systems of folds which form the mountain chains of the Earth.

    They must have the same fold structure, which would be revealed by reconstructed cross-section. They must have the same plan revealed by the "trend-lines," one line being reconstructed from the strike lines of the ridges.

    Most cursory accounts of Delphi include a phase they call the end of Delphi. After all, ruins are in evidence, so there must have been a time when the structures they represent were unruined.

    Many give the impression that the emperor's sheriff drove up the hill with a bulldozer and a wrecking ball, or a least an army of wreckers, and went back down the hill the same day having levelled the site, and that from then on it remained uninhabited.

    Although such a sudden event is possible with the equipment of modern times, it did not generally happen that way in ancient times, except in unusual cases, such as the fall of Carthage, when the Romans leveled the city and sowed the bare ground with salt so that nothing would grown there.

    Even so the city was rebuilt. Such was never the case for Delphi. It transitioned from phase to phase. There may never have been a time when the site had no inhabitants or structures, and no one was interested in living there.

    It had the spring and the view. The ruins in evidence date from the ancient classical period with some in the late antique period.

    In order to place them in evidence, the first excavators, the French School of Athens, had to clear away many tons of rubble.

    But that rubble contained the habitation levels of post-classical settlements, which were sacrificed in favor of the earlier ruins. The lack of this transitional material also gives the impression of a sudden ruination, which is false.

    History portrays Delphi as a very popular site. Once in a century or two it was burned by some interloper, and then promply rebuilt better than before.

    After Hellenic society transitioned from pagan to Christian, Delphi remained just as popular as it had been. Still pagan, it often honored the Christian emperors, while they allowed it to stand.

    Both religions were practiced there side-by side. Finally, however, use of the oracle fell off to such a degree that it could no longer be maintained.

    The other aspects went on: the games, the worship of Apollo in the temple. Regretfully the Christian emperors dealt with all the pagan sites as a loose end.

    Delphi transitioned to a secular site in which churches were built. Without the oracle, there was not much point in frequenting a high-altitude, out-of-the-way place.

    The population fell off to small village. The place had not ended, however. Archaeology and tourism infused it with a whole new life. It may well be frequented by just as many people as frequented it in classical days.

    It earns its own revenue. The geologic problems are just as bad as they were in ancient times: faults, slippery slopes, earthquakes, rockslides, runoff.

    As at all major archaeological sites, the effort to maintain the ruins rivals the original effort to maintain the structures.

    The classical site had flourished because of its popularity. After the change of religion, Popularity and frequentation fell off sharply.

    The oracle could no longer cover operating expenses. After a line of Christian emperors, Julian , reigning not long , rejecting Christianity in favor of neoplatonism , for which he is called Julian the Apostate, attempted to restore the prior religions, paganism and Judaism.

    He sent his physician to Delphi to rebuild the Temple of Apollo, and received an oracle for his efforts that "the speaking water has been silenced," which became known as "the last oracle" and is recorded by George Kedrenos.

    The site was first briefly excavated in by Bernard Haussoullier on behalf of the French School at Athens , of which he was a sometime member.

    The site was then occupied by the village of Kastri , about houses, people. Kastri "fort" had been there since the destruction of the place by Theodosius I in He probably left a fort to make sure it was not repopulated, except that the fort became the new village.

    They were mining the stone for re-use in their own buildings. British and French travellers visiting the site suspected it was ancient Delphi.

    Before a systematic excavation of the site could be undertaken, the village had to be relocated but the residents resisted.

    The opportunity to relocate the village occurred when it was substantially damaged by an earthquake, with villagers offered a completely new village in exchange for the old site.

    In the French Archaeological School removed vast quantities of soil from numerous landslides to reveal both the major buildings and structures of the sanctuary of Apollo and of Athena Pronoia along with thousands of objects, inscriptions and sculptures.

    During the Great Excavation were discovered architectural members from a 5th-century Christian basilica , when Delphi was a bishopric.

    Other important Late Roman buildings are the Eastern Baths, the house with the peristyle, the Roman Agora , the large cistern usw. At the outskirts of the city there were located late Roman cemeteries.

    Large storage jars kept the provisions, whereas other pottery vessels and luxury items were discovered in the rooms.

    Among the finds stands out a tiny leopard made of mother of pearl, possibly of Sassanian origin, on display in the ground floor gallery of the Delphi Archaeological Museum.

    The mansion dates to the beginning of the 5th century and functioned as a private house until , later however it was transformed into a potters' workshop.

    Local pottery production is produced in large quantities: [18] it is coarser and made of reddish clay, aiming at satisfying the needs of the inhabitants.

    The Sacred Way remained the main street of the settlement, transformed, however, into a street with commercial and industrial use. Around the agora were built workshops as well as the only intra muros early Christian basilica.

    The domestic area spread mainly in the western part of the settlement. The houses were rather spacious and two large cisterns provided running water to them.

    The Delphi Archaeological Museum is at the foot of the main archaeological complex, on the east side of the village, and on the north side of the main road.

    The museum houses artifacts associated with ancient Delphi, including the earliest known notation of a melody , the Charioteer of Delphi , Kleobis and Biton , golden treasures discovered beneath the Sacred Way, the Sphinx of Naxos , and fragments of reliefs from the Siphnian Treasury.

    Immediately adjacent to the exit is the inscription that mentions the Roman proconsul Gallio. Entries to the museum and to the main complex are separate and chargeable.

    A reduced rate ticket gets entry to both. There is a small cafe, and a post office by the museum. Most of the ruins that survive today date from the most intense period of activity at the site in the 6th century BC.

    The poet Pindar celebrated the Alcmaeonids' temple in Pythian 7. Other details are given by Pausanias The first temple was said to have been constructed out of olive branches from Tempe.

    The second was made by bees out of wax and wings but was miraculously carried off by a powerful wind and deposited among the Hyperboreans.

    The third, as described by Pindar, was created by the gods Hephaestus and Athena , but its architectural details included Siren -like figures or "Enchantresses", whose baneful songs eventually provoked the Olympian gods to bury the temple in the earth according to Pausanias, it was destroyed by earthquake and fire.

    In Pindar's words Paean 8. The fourth temple was said to have been constructed from stone by Trophonius and Agamedes. From the entrance of the upper site, continuing up the slope on the Sacred Way almost to the Temple of Apollo, are a large number of votive statues, and numerous so-called treasuries.

    These were built by many of the Greek city states to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for her advice, which was thought to have contributed to those victories.

    These buildings held the offerings made to Apollo; these were frequently a "tithe" or tenth of the spoils of a battle. The Siphnian Treasury was dedicated by the city of Siphnos whose citizens gave a tithe of the yield from their silver mines until the mines came to an abrupt end when the sea flooded the workings.

    One of the largest of the treasuries was that of Argos. Having built it in the late Doric period, the Argives took great pride in establishing their place at Delphi amongst the other city states.

    Completed in BC, the treasury seems to draw inspiration mostly from the Temple of Hera located in the Argolis. However, recent analysis of the Archaic elements of the treasury suggest that its founding preceded this.

    Other identifiable treasuries are those of the Sikyonians , the Boeotians and the Thebans. Located in front of the Temple of Apollo, the main altar of the sanctuary was paid for and built by the people of Chios.

    It is dated to the 5th century BC by the inscription on its cornice. Made entirely of black marble, except for the base and cornice, the altar would have made a striking impression.

    It was restored in The stoa leads off north-east from the main sanctuary. It was built in the Ionic order and consists of seven fluted columns, unusually carved from single pieces of stone most columns were constructed from a series of discs joined together.

    The stoa was attached to the existing Polygonal Wall. The Sibyl rock is a pulpit-like outcrop of rock between the Athenian Treasury and the Stoa of the Athenians upon the sacred way which leads up to the temple of Apollo in the archaeological area of Delphi.

    It is claimed to be where an ancient Sibyl pre-dating the Pythia of Apollo sat to deliver her prophecies.

    The ancient theatre at Delphi was built further up the hill from the Temple of Apollo giving spectators a view of the entire sanctuary and the valley below.

    The orchestra was initially a full circle with a diameter measuring 7 meters. The rectangular scene building ended up in two arched openings, of which the foundations are preserved today.

    Access to the theatre was possible through the parodoi, i. On the support walls of the parodoi are engraved large numbers of manumission inscriptions recording fictitious sales of the slaves to the god.

    The koilon was divided horizontally in two zones via a corridor called diazoma. The lower zone had 27 rows of seats and the upper one only 8.

    Six radially arranged stairs divided the lower part of the koilon in seven tiers. The theatre could accommodate about 4, spectators. On the occasion of Nero's visit to Greece in 67 A.

    The orchestra was paved and delimited by a parapet made of stone. Further repairs and transformations took place in the 2nd century A.

    Pausanias mentions that these were carried out under the auspices of Herod Atticus. In antiquity, the theatre was used for the vocal and musical contests which formed part of the programme of the Pythian Games in the late Hellenistic and Roman period.

    After its excavation and initial restoration it hosted theatrical performances during the Delphic Festivals organized by A. Sikelianos and his wife, Eva Palmer, in and in It has recently been restored again as the serious landslides posed a grave threat for its stability for decades.

    It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diameter of Three of the Doric columns have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

    The gymnasium , which is half a mile away from the main sanctuary, was a series of buildings used by the youth of Delphi.

    The building consisted of two levels: a stoa on the upper level providing open space, and a palaestra , pool and baths on lower floor. These pools and baths were said to have magical powers, and imparted the ability to communicate to Apollo himself.

    The stadium is located further up the hill, beyond the via sacra and the theatre. It was at the Pythian games that prominent political leaders, such as Cleisthenes , tyrant of Sikyon , and Hieron , tyrant of Syracuse , competed with their chariots.

    The hippodrome where these events took place was referred to by Pindar , [33] and this monument was sought by archaeologists for over two centuries.

    Its traces have recently been found at Gonia in the plain of Krisa in the place where the original stadium was sited. Its name is taken from the polygonal masonry of which it is constructed.

    Approximately a thousand manumissions are recorded on the wall. The sacred spring of Delphi lies in the ravine of the Phaedriades.

    The preserved remains of two monumental fountains that received the water from the spring date to the Archaic period and the Roman , with the latter cut into the rock.

    Delphi is famous for its many preserved athletic statues. It is known that Olympia originally housed far more of these statues, but time brought ruin to many of them, leaving Delphi as the main site of athletic statues.

    The statues commemorate their feat of pulling their mother's cart several miles to the Sanctuary of Hera in the absence of oxen. The neighbors were most impressed and their mother asked Hera to grant them the greatest gift.

    When they entered Hera's temple, they fell into a slumber and never woke, dying at the height of their admiration, the perfect gift. The Charioteer of Delphi is another ancient relic that has withstood the centuries.

    It is one of the best known statues from antiquity. The charioteer has lost many features, including his chariot and his left arm, but he stands as a tribute to athletic art of antiquity.

    A myth is a story based on fantasy or belief rather than known fact. Ancient Greek culture used them frequently in many different contexts.

    They are only known to moderns through mention in ancient Greek writings. A writer typically had access to writings at a library or private archive, unless he was wealthy enough to have his own copies made.

    All books were hand-written. Authors referred to other authors whose books they had before them, or had taken notes from.

    Often the source of the story was not identified, but even if it was, the source may have taken it from some other book. Sometimes authors wrote down myths related to them orally.

    It is thus not possible to date myths. They could have come from any prior time. Often the date of the book relating the myth cannot be determined within centuries.

    A myth cannot with any certainty be attributed to any century, although the written source may be. Scholars are not entirely without dating methods, however.

    The content of the myth may resemble or imply circumstances of known or probable provenience. The Greeks were aided and abetted in their myth-making by the oracles in which they typically devoutly believed.

    When asked a question, an oracle never gave a direct answer, but spoke in allegories with "hidden meanings" and "ambiguities," said Plutarch, priest of Apollo and historian.

    As the prophecy was regarded as the true word of divinity, the actual meaning, if it could be known, must be historical truth. Believing this principle to be true, many of the best historians spent time trying to intepret oracular myths as actual circumstances.

    Zeus determined the site of Delphi when he sought to find the centre of his "Grandmother Earth" Gaia. He sent two eagles flying from the eastern and western extremities, and the path of the eagles crossed over Delphi where the omphalos , or navel of Gaia was found.

    According to Aeschylus in the prologue of the Eumenides , the oracle had origins in prehistoric times and the worship of Gaea , a view echoed by H.

    One tale of the sanctuary's discovery states that a goatherd, who grazed his flocks on Parnassus, one day observed his goats playing with great agility upon nearing a chasm in the rock; the goatherd noticing this held his head over the chasm causing the fumes to go to his brain; throwing him into a strange trance.

    Apollo was said to have slain Python , a "drako" a serpent or a dragon who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel picked in the temple.

    Delphi is perhaps best known for its oracle, the Pythia , or sibyl , the duty priestess prophecying from the tripod in the sunken adyton of the Temple of Apollo.

    Apollo spoke through his oracle. She had to be an older woman of blameless life chosen from among the peasants of the area.

    Alone in an enclosed inner sanctum Ancient Greek adyton - "do not enter" she sat on a tripod seat over an opening in the earth the "chasm".

    According to legend, when Apollo slew Python its body fell into this fissure and fumes arose from its decomposing body.

    Intoxicated by the vapours, the sibyl would fall into a trance, allowing Apollo to possess her spirit. In this state she prophesied.

    The oracle could not be consulted during the winter months, for this was traditionally the time when Apollo would live among the Hyperboreans.

    Dionysus would inhabit the temple during his absence. The time to consult pythia for an oracle during the year is determined from astronomical and geological grounds related to the constellations of Lyra and Cygnus but [ clarification needed ] the hydrocarbon vapours emitted from the chasm.

    While in a trance the Pythia "raved" — probably a form of ecstatic speech — and her ravings were "translated" by the priests of the temple into elegant hexameters.

    It has been speculated that the ancient writers, including Plutarch who had worked as a priest at Delphi, were correct in attributing the oracular effects to the sweet-smelling pneuma Ancient Greek for breath, wind or vapour escaping from the chasm in the rock.

    That exhalation could have been high in the known anaesthetic and sweet-smelling ethylene or other hydrocarbons such as ethane known to produce violent trances.

    Though this theory remains debatable the authors put up a detailed answer to their critics. Several alternative plant candidates have been suggested including Cannabis , Hyoscyamus , Rhododendron and Oleander.

    Harissis claims that a review of contemporary toxicological literature indicates that oleander causes symptoms similar to those shown by the Pythia, and his study of ancient texts shows that oleander was often included under the term "laurel".

    The Pythia may have chewed oleander leaves and inhaled their smoke prior to her oracular pronouncements and sometimes dying from the toxicity. The Delphic oracle exerted considerable influence throughout the Greek world, and she was consulted before all major undertakings including wars and the founding of colonies.

    The oracle was also known to the early Romans. Rome's seventh and last king , Lucius Tarquinius Superbus , after witnessing a snake near his palace, sent a delegation including two of his sons to consult the oracle.

    In 83 BCE a Thracian tribe raided Delphi, burned the temple, plundered the sanctuary and stole the "unquenchable fire" from the altar. During the raid, part of the temple roof collapsed.

    The sparse local population led to difficulties in filling the posts required. The oracle's credibility waned due to doubtful predictions. The oracle flourished again in the second century CE during the rule of emperor Hadrian , who is believed to have visited the oracle twice and offered complete autonomy to the city.

    Despite the rise of Christianity across the Roman Empire, the oracle remained a religious centre throughout the 4th century, and the Pythian Games continued to be held at least until CE; [59] however, the decline continued.

    The attempt of Emperor Julian to revive polytheism did not survive his reign. Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo , as well as the Pythian Games and the prehistoric oracle.

    Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. However, ancient as well as modern scholars have doubted the legitimacy of such inscriptions.

    Most likely they were popular proverbs, which tended later to be attributed to particular sages. According to the Homeric hymn to the Pythian Apollo, Apollo shot his first arrow as an infant which effectively slew the serpent Pytho, the son of Gaia, who guarded the spot.

    To atone the murder of Gaia's son, Apollo was forced to fly and spend eight years in menial service before he could return forgiven. A festival, the Septeria, was held every year, at which the whole story was represented: the slaying of the serpent, and the flight, atonement, and return of the god.

    The Pythian Games took place every four years to commemorate Apollo's victory. The culmination of the festival was a display of an image of the gods, usually hidden in the sanctuary , to worshippers.

    The theoxenia was held each summer, centred on a feast for "gods and ambassadors from other states. Python, who had been sent by Hera , had attempted to prevent Leto , while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis , from giving birth.

    This spring flowed toward the temple but disappeared beneath, creating a cleft which emitted chemical vapors that purportedly caused the oracle at Delphi to reveal her prophecies.

    Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since he was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was originally dedicated to Gaia and shared with Poseidon.

    Erwin Rohde wrote that the Python was an earth spirit, who was conquered by Apollo, and buried under the omphalos , and that it is a case of one deity setting up a temple on the grave of another.

    Occupation of the site at Delphi can be traced back to the Neolithic period with extensive occupation and use beginning in the Mycenaean period — BC.

    Delphi was since ancient times a place of worship for Gaia , the mother goddess connected with fertility. The town started to gain pan-Hellenic relevance as both a shrine and an oracle in the 7th century BC.

    The conflict resulted in the consolidation of the Amphictyonic League , which had both a military and a religious function revolving around the protection of the Temple of Apollo.

    This shrine was destroyed by fire in BC and then fell under the control of the Alcmaeonids banned from Athens. Although subsequent Roman emperors of the Flavian dynasty contributed towards to the restoration of the site, it gradually lost importance.

    In the course of the 3rd century mystery cults became more popular than the traditional Greek pantheon. Christianity, which started as yet one more mystery cult, soon gained ground, and this eventually resulted in the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire.

    The anti-pagan legislation of the Flavian dynasty deprived ancient sanctuaries of their assets. When the doctor Oreibasius visited the oracle of Delphi, in order to question the fate of paganism, he received a pessimistic answer:.

    Phoebus does not have a home any more, neither an oracular laurel, nor a speaking fountain, because the talking water has dried out.

    The Amphictyonic Council was a council of representatives from six Greek tribes that controlled Delphi and also the quadrennial Pythian Games.

    They met biannually and came from Thessaly and central Greece. Over time, the town of Delphi gained more control of itself and the council lost much of its influence.

    Pottery and bronze as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream, in contrast to Olympia. Neither the range of objects nor the presence of prestigious dedications proves that Delphi was a focus of attention for a wide range of worshippers, but the large quantity of valuable goods, found in no other mainland sanctuary, encourages that view.

    The victors at Delphi were presented with a laurel crown stephanos which was ceremonially cut from a tree by a boy who re-enacted the slaying of the Python.

    Delphi was set apart from the other games sites because it hosted the mousikos agon, musical competitions. These Pythian Games rank second among the four stephanitic games chronologically and in importance.

    Delphi would have been a renowned city regardless of whether it hosted these games; it had other attractions that led to it being labeled the "omphalos" navel of the earth, in other words, the centre of the world.

    In the inner hestia hearth of the Temple of Apollo, an eternal flame burned. After the battle of Plataea , the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi.

    Delphi itself remained almost uninhabited for centuries. It seems that one of the first buildings of the early modern era was the monastery of the Dormition of Mary or of Panagia the Mother of God built above the ancient gymnasium at Delphi.

    It must have been towards the end of the 15th or in the 16th century that a settlement started forming there, which eventually ended up forming the village of Kastri.

    Ottoman Delphi gradually began to be investigated. The first Westerner to describe the remains in Delphi was Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli Cyriacus of Ancona , a 15th-century merchant turned diplomat and antiquarian.

    He visited Delphi in March and remained there for six days. He recorded all the visible archaeological remains based on Pausanias for identification.

    He described the stadium and the theatre at that date as well as some free standing pieces of sculpture.

    He also recorded several inscriptions, most of which are now lost. His identifications however were not always correct: for example he described a round building he saw as the temple of Apollo while this was simply the base of the Argives' ex-voto.

    A severe earthquake in caused much damage. Their studies were published in under the title Ionian Antiquities , [77] followed by a collection of inscriptions, [78] and two travel books, one about Asia Minor , [79] and one about Greece Yet there I've wandered by the vaulted rill; Yes!

    Sighed o'er Delphi's long deserted shrine, where, save that feeble fountain, all is still. He carved his name on the same column in the gymnasium as Lord Aberdeen , later Prime Minister, who had visited a few years before.

    Proper excavation did not start until the late 19th century see "Excavations" section after the village had moved. From the 16th century onward, West Europe developed an interest in Delphi.

    In the midth century Strabo was first translated in Latin. The earliest depictions of Delphi were totally imaginary, created by the German N. Gerbel, who published in a text based on the map of Greece by N.

    The ancient sanctuary was depicted as a fortified city. The first travelers with archaeological interests, apart from the precursor Cyriacus of Ancona, were the British George Wheler and the French Jacob Spon , who visited Greece in a joint expedition in — They published their impressions separately.

    In Wheler's "Journey into Greece", published in , a sketch of the region of Delphi appeared, where the settlement of Kastri and some ruins were depicted.

    Travelers continued to visit Delphi throughout the 19th century and published their books which contained diaries, sketches, views of the site as well as pictures of coins.

    The philhellene painter W. Williams has comprised the landscape of Delphi in his themes Influential personalities such as F.

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